Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection that destroys the attachment fibers and supporting bones that hold the teeth in the mouth. Left untreated, periodontal disease can lead to tooth loss. The main cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on teeth.The most common periodontal disease of which being plaque-induced inflammatory conditions are gingivitis and periodontitis.
Periodontal treatments are divided into two categories – non-surgical and surgical.
1)Scaling and root planning
Scaling and root planing is a careful cleaning of the root surfaces to remove plaque and calculus [tartar] from deep periodontal pockets and to smooth the tooth root to remove bacterial toxins. Scaling and root planing is sometimes followed by adjunctive therapy such as local delivery antimicrobials, systemic antibiotics, and host modulation, as needed on a case-by-case basis.
Lasers can be used to treat periodontal disease. Dental laser is used to access and remove the inflamed gum tissue from around the root of the tooth. When the infected tissue is removed and the root is exposed, the root scaling begins. This involves scraping off the calculus and plaque built up below the gumline and around the root. The dentist then smooths the root with instruments to remove any rough spots that might attract bacteria and cause future infections. The area between the gum and the root can then regenerate during the healing process. Scaling and root planing is a traditional non-surgical therapy used to treat periodontal diseases. Benefits of this treatment includes no general anesthetic is needed, as is sometimes required for other forms of dental surgery,lasers can target the diseased areas precisely and accurately,bleeding, pain and swelling are limited because periodontal laser therapy is less invasive than regular surgery,recovery and healing times are shorter.
These treatments are employed when the above mentioned non-surgical procedures prove inadequate to treating gum problems, due to damage to underlying bone and/or tissue are in advanced stages, in addition to plague and tartar problems.
• Flap/pocket reduction surgery
During this procedure the gums are lifted back and removing build up of tartar latching on the exposed parts of the tooth. The gums are later placed back so that the tissue fits enough to maintain tooth stability.
• Bone and/or tissue grafting
These procedures involve grafting bones and/or soft tissues onto the diseased site in case of severe bone loss and/or gum tissues receded too much. Bones can be natural or synthetic bone, and tissue taken from other sites like the roof of the mouth.
• Guided tissue regeneration
This is applied usually after use of bone grafts to stimulate bone and gum tissue growth, keeping tissue from growing into bone areas to ensure proper regeneration capable of supporting the tooth.